Welcome to Kenrick A. Claflin & Son Nautical Antiques Online Catalogue
We specializes in the field of United States Lighthouse Service (USLHS), Light House Establishment (USLHE), Life-Saving Service (USLSS), Revenue Cutter Service (USRCS), Shipwrecks and early Coast Guard (USCG), and works by Edward Rowe Snow. More particularly, we work to provide various governmental agencies, historical groups, restoration contractors and collectors with information and original artifacts relating to lighthouses, life-saving stations, keepers, etc. in their area. Our stock includes books, post cards, both new and out-of-print, photos, engravings, newspapers, charts, lithographs, paintings, uniforms, flags, insignia, antiques, Fresnel lenses, lamps, lanterns, brassware and more.
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CLIMATE CHANGE - GLOBAL WARMING
Never before in recorded history has the earth’s surface been visible below the polar ice cap –
UNTIL NOW !
Throughout its long history, Earth has warmed and cooled
time and again. Climate has changed when the planet received more or less
sunlight due to subtle shifts in its orbit, as the atmosphere or surface
changed, or when the Sun’s energy varied.
in the past century, another force has started to influence Earth’s climate:
Why The Controversy ?
The global warming controversy includes a variety of disputes about the nature, causes, and consequences of global warming. The debates, however, are more in the popular media than in the scientific literature. The disputed issues involve the causes of increased global average air temperature, especially since the mid-20th century, whether such a warming trend is unprecedented or within normal climatic variations, whether humankind has contributed significantly to it, and whether the increase is wholly or partially an artifact of poor measurements. Additional disputes concern estimates of climate sensitivity, predictions of additional warming, and what the consequences of global warming will be.
However, in the scientific literature, there is a strong consensus that global surface temperatures have increased in recent decades and that the trend is caused mainly by human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases. No scientific body of national or international standing disagrees with this view, though a few organizations hold non-committal positions. (from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)
CHANGE - GLOBAL WARMING FACT SHEET
IS GLOBAL WARMING, ANYWAY?
Ø Global warming is caused by the release of carbon dioxide and other
heat-trapping gases into earth’s atmosphere. The gases act like a thick
blanket, trapping the sun's heat and causing the planet to warm up. Increase the
gases and the warming increases, too. These gases are created when we burn
fossil fuels in our cars and power plants as well as by loss of forests and
Ø Scientists find clues to global warming by studying remnants of the
past in ancient glacial ice, ocean sediments as well as tree and coral rings.
Ø Global warming is problematic to human civilization because it will
cause increasingly severe storms and droughts, glaciers to melt, rising seas,
changes in weather patterns, the spread of disease.
Ø Automobiles and coal-burning power plants are the two biggest sources
of carbon dioxide in the U.S. Clearing of forests is also an important source
Ø Scientists say that unless we curb global warming emissions, average
temperatures could rise by 3 to 9 degrees by the end of this century – in our
SCIENTIFIC STATS ON GLOBAL WARMING
Ø Recent data from Antarctic ice cores indicates that carbon dioxide
concentrations are now higher than at any time during the past 650,000 years,
which is as far back as measurements can now reach.
Ø 2005 was the warmest year on record since atmospheric temperatures have
been measured. The ten warmest years on record have all been since 1990. In
summer 2005, and in every year since, heat records were broken in hundreds of
Ø Over the past 50 years, the average global temperature has increased at
the fastest rate in recorded history.
Ø In 2003, heat waves caused over 30,000 deaths in Europe and 1500 deaths
Ø Since 1978, arctic sea ice has been shrinking by about 9 percent per
decade - a total of 29% to date.
Ø Seagulls were spotted for the first time ever at the North Pole in
Ø The snows of Mt. Kilimanjaro, at their current rate of melt, may be
gone by 2020.
EFFECTS AS TEMPERATURES RISE
Ø Global warming is predicted to increase
the intensity of hurricanes. In the past several decades, the number of
Category 4 and 5 hurricanes globally has almost doubled. Because the ocean is
getting warmer, tropical storms can pick up more energy and become far more
Ø Even as severe storms cause flooding in some areas, droughts
and wildfires will increase in others.
Ø Low-lying islands, some capes
and coastlines will no longer be habitable due to rising sea level.
Ø Forests, farms and cities will face troublesome new pests and more mosquito-borne diseases.
of habitats such as coral reefs and alpine meadows could drive many plant and
animal species to extinction.
CAN BE DONE?
Ø Energy efficiency, conservation, renewable sources of energy and new
policies will all be part of the solution. Much of this technology already
exists to reverse the effects of global warming. Immediate steps include
building cleaner cars, CFL light bulbs, manufacturing more efficient appliances
and conserving energy on an international basis.
Ø Individuals can make an immediate difference by trying to reduce their
personal greenhouse gas emissions.
Ø Major corporations are already finding ways to cut emissions while
still saving money – but there is tremendous opportunity for more innovation.
Ø Developing and making available new clean energy technologies -- such
as wind power, solar power, hybrid electric engines, and alternative fuels –
will be key to controlling global warming.
Climate Change Blog
Posted on November 2, 2012
New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg on Hurricane Sandy and Climate Change:
“The devastation that Hurricane Sandy brought to New York City and much of the Northeast -- in lost lives, lost homes and lost business -- brought the stakes of Tuesday’s presidential election into sharp relief. The floods and fires that swept through our city left a path of destruction that will require years of recovery and rebuilding work. And in the short term, our subway system remains partially shut down, and many city residents and businesses still have no power. In just 14 months, two hurricanes have forced us to evacuate neighborhoods -- something our city government had never done before. If this is a trend, it is simply not sustainable. Our climate is changing. And while the increase in extreme weather we have experienced in New York City and around the world may or may not be the result of it, the risk that it might be -- given this week’s devastation -- should compel all elected leaders to take immediate action. Here in New York, our comprehensive sustainability plan has helped allow us to cut our carbon footprint by 16 percent in just five years, which is the equivalent of eliminating the carbon footprint of a city twice the size of Seattle. Through the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group -- a partnership among many of the world’s largest cities -- local governments are taking action where national governments are not….“ Leadership is Needed ! Read more at The Bloomberg View.
Posted on August 23, 2012
Arctic Sea Ice at Lowest Levels Ever
North Pole webcam picture taken on 22 August 2012 showing ice cap melting. Climate scientists expect the Arctic sea ice is on course to plummet to its lowest levels ever this weekend. Photograph: University of Washington/ North Pole Environmental Observatory/NOAA
Posted on July 20, 2012
Severe Storms on the Increase
– Global warming is leading to such severe storms, droughts and heat waves
that nations should prepare for an unprecedented onslaught of deadly and costly
weather disasters, an international panel of climate scientists says in a report
greatest danger from extreme weather is in highly populated, poor regions of the
world, the report warns, but no corner of the globe — from Mumbai to Miami —
is immune. The document by a Nobel Prize-winning panel of climate scientists
forecasts stronger tropical cyclones and more frequent heat waves, deluges and
594-page report blames the scale of recent and future disasters on a combination
of man-made climate change, population shifts and poverty. From USA Today. By
Seth Borenstein, Associated Press. 7/20/12.
Posted on February 28, 2012
Where does some of our plastic trash end up?
At least 1,700 miles of plastic trash is floating in what is commonly known as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. Up until this point, scientists only had a vague idea of the scope of the trash they would find in the North Pacific Gyre, a vortex where four ocean currents meet.
Posted on February 28, 2012
Scientist Magazine for February 25, 2012 notes that “There simply is no
credible scientific alternative to the theory that humans are warming the
atmosphere. In 2010, a survey of 1372 climate scientists found that 97 percent
of those who publish most frequently in the field were in no doubt. They agreed
with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change that human activity had
caused most of the Earth’s warming over the second half of the 20th
century…. (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences).”
By not acting now, we are doing a disservice to those who will have to deal with the consequences of worsening climate change in the near future.
Posted on February 22, 2012
The WNY Sustainable Energy Association presents:
Climate Change in the
Wednesday February 29th – 7:15 pm at Karpeles Manuscript Library, 453 Porter Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14201
Featured Speaker will be Terry Yonker: -Immediate Past Co-Chair of the Great Lakes Wind Collaborative, Energy and Climate Change Work Group Chair of the WNY Environmental Alliance and Trustee of the WNY Sustainable Energy Association Trust
talk will include a discussion of the science and the probable impacts of global
warming on the climate of the
Posted on February 2, 2012
Recycling Plastic Bottles - What are the benefits to recycling plastic bottles?
Conservation of Oil. When a ton of plastic bottles are recycled approximately 3.8 barrels of petroleum is saved.
Reduction of Greenhouse Gas emissions. The substitution of recycled materials reduces the emission of greenhouse gases that are produced in the manufacturing of virgin materials.
Saving of Landfill Space. Not having millions of plastic bottles in the landfill results in a saving of 6.7 cubic meters of landfill space that is at a premium right now. Plastic bottles also take an average of 500 years to biodegrade.
Conservation of Energy. Water and soft drink bottles are made of polyethylene terephthalate or PET. Recycling of one pound of PET results in a saving of approximately 12,000 BTU’s (British Thermal Units).
Benefits of Reuse. Recycled bottles can provide an environmentally friendly source of materials for the manufacture of new products and substitutes recycle materials for virgin materials. (from Benefits-of-Recycling.com)
Posted on January 31, 2012
Recycling From Less Waste to None
New York Times
Published: October 19, 2009
At Yellowstone National Park, the clear soda cups and white utensils are not your typical cafe-counter garbage. Made of plant-based plastics, they dissolve magically when heated for more than a few minutes.
And at eight of its North American plants, Honda is recycling so diligently that the factories have gotten rid of their trash Dumpsters altogether.
Across the nation, an antigarbage strategy known as “zero waste” is moving from the fringes to the mainstream, taking hold in school cafeterias, national parks, restaurants, stadiums and corporations.
The movement is simple in concept if not always in execution: Produce less waste. Shun polystyrene foam containers or any other packaging that is not biodegradable. Recycle or compost whatever you can.
Though born of idealism, the zero-waste philosophy is now propelled by sobering realities, like the growing difficulty of securing permits for new landfills and an awareness that organic decay in landfills releases methane that helps warm the earth’s atmosphere. To read more click here….
United Nations (UN) warns world lacks food:
population – the number of all living humans on the planet Earth - is today
estimated to number 6.991 BILLION by the United States Census Bureau. According
to a separate estimate by the United Nations, the number has already exceeded 7
BILLION. The world population has experienced continuous growth since the end of
the Great Famine and Black Death in 1350, when it stood at around 370 million.
As the world’s population continues to grow, the United Nations warns that the world lacks food to support the growth. The UN estimates that within the next 20 years the world's population will need 50 per cent more food and vast new reserves of energy and water [Reuters].
A major United Nations report on sustainability has warned that time is running out to ensure that there is enough food, water and fuel to meet the needs of the world's rapidly growing population.
In a grim warning about the earth's increasing demand for resources, the report found that demand will grow exponentially as the global population rises from 7 billion people to an expected 9 billion by 2040.
Within the next 20 years the world's population will need 50 per cent more food, 45 percent more energy and 30 percent more water, according to UN estimates.
The report warns a failure to secure resources will condemn up to 3 billion people to poverty.
The report's authors have urged governments to tackle sustainable development with a greater sense of urgency and political will. "The current global development model is unsustainable," the report reads.
"To achieve sustainability, a transformation of the global economy is required. Tinkering on the margins will not do the job. The current global economic crisis ... offers an opportunity for significant reforms."
The panel, which made 56 recommendations for sustainable development to be included in economic policy as quickly as possible. Among the panel's recommendations, it urged governments to agree on a set of sustainable development goals which would complement the eight Millennium Development Goals to 2015 and create a framework for action after 2015. It also recommends efforts to double productivity while reducing resource use.
Water and marine ecosystems should be managed more efficiently and there should be universal access to affordable sustainable energy by 2030. The authors also recommend the establishment of carbon and natural resource pricing, and the phasing out of fossil fuel subsidies by 2020. (source Asia Pacific News / ABC Radio Australia)
Posted on January 15, 2012
Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs: Change a Light Bulb and Change the WorldIf you want to change the world, start by changing a few light bulbs. It is one of the best things you can do for the environment—and your budget.
According to the Union of Concerned Scientists, if every U.S. household replaced just one regular incandescent light bulb with a compact fluorescent light bulb, it would prevent 90 billion pounds of greenhouse gas emissions from power plants, the equivalent of taking 7.5 million cars off the road. And the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency says that by replacing regular light bulbs with compact fluorescent light bulbs at the same minimal rate, Americans would save enough energy to light more than 2.5 million homes for a year.
On top of that, replacing one regular light bulb with an approved compact fluorescent light bulb would save consumers $30 in energy costs over the life of the bulb.
Compact fluorescent light bulbs use at least two-thirds less energy than standard incandescent bulbs to provide the same amount of light, and they last up to 10 times longer. Compact fluorescent light bulbs also generate 70 percent less heat, so they are safer to operate and can also reduce energy costs associated with cooling homes and offices.
The only real drawback to using compact fluorescent bulbs is that each one contains about 5 mg of mercury, so when they do expire, one should be recycling compact fluorescent bulbs to make sure they don't end up in landfills. (from About.com - Environmental Issues)
Posted on January 5, 2012
Since 1978, arctic sea ice has been shrinking by about 9 percent per decade - a total of about 29% to date. The Arctic is global warming's "canary in the coal mine". It is a highly sensitive region, and it is being profoundly affected by the changing climate. Most scientists view what's happening now in the Arctic as a harbinger of things to come.
It is now known that the Arctic Ice Cap, frozen for 50 million years, is melting. We also know that above normal Arctic temperatures, from the ocean water to the air currents, account for the melting. Global warming is real, and the melting of the Arctic Ice Cap is one of its symptoms.
Reprinted from Washington Post. March 3, 2006:
"Antarctic Ice Sheet Is Melting Rapidly
By Juliet Eilperin
Washington Post Staff Writer. Friday, March 3, 2006
Antarctic ice sheet is losing as much as 36 cubic miles of ice a year in a trend
that scientists link to global warming, according to a new paper that provides
the first evidence that the sheet's total mass is shrinking significantly.
new findings, which are being published today in the journal Science, suggest
that global sea level could rise substantially over the next several centuries.
is one of a slew of scientific papers in recent weeks that have sought to gauge
the impact of climate change on the world's oceans and lakes. Just last month
two researchers reported that Greenland's glaciers are melting into the sea
twice as fast as previously believed, and a separate paper in Science today
predicts that by the end of this century lakes and streams on one-fourth of the
African continent could be drying up because of higher temperatures.
new Antarctic measurements, using data from two NASA satellites called the
Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), found that the amount of water
pouring annually from the ice sheet into the ocean -- equivalent to the amount
of water the United States uses in three months -- is causing global sea level
to rise by 0.4 millimeters a year. The continent holds 90 percent of the world's
ice, and the disappearance of even its smaller West Antarctic ice sheet could
raise worldwide sea levels by an estimated 20 feet.
ice sheet is losing mass at a significant rate," said Isabella Velicogna,
the study's lead author and a research scientist at Colorado University at
Boulder's Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences.
"It's a good indicator of how the climate is changing. It tells us we have
to pay attention."
Alley, a Pennsylvania State University glaciologist who has studied the
Antarctic ice sheet but was not involved in the new research, said more research
is needed to determine if the shrinkage is a long-term trend, because the new
report is based on just three years of data. "One person's trend is another
person's fluctuation," he said.
Alley called the study significant and "a bit surprising" because a
major international scientific panel predicted five years ago that the Antarctic
ice sheet would gain mass this century as higher temperatures led to increased
looks like the ice sheets are ahead of schedule" in terms of melting, Alley
said. "That's a wake-up call. We better figure out what's going on."
acknowledged that it is hard to predict how fast the ice sheet will melt in the
future but said, "I don't expect it's going to stop in the next couple of
have been debating whether the Antarctic ice sheet is expanding or shrinking
overall, because the center of the sheet tends to gain mass through snowfall
whereas the coastal regions are more vulnerable to melting.
and her co-author, University of Colorado at Boulder physics professor John Wahr,
based their measurements on data from the two GRACE satellites that circle the
world more than a dozen times a day at an altitude of 310 miles. The satellites
measure variations in Earth's mass and gravitational pull: Increases or
decreases in the Antarctic ice sheet's mass change the distance between the
satellites as they fly over the region.
strength of GRACE is that we were able to assess the entire Antarctic region in
one fell swoop to determine if it was gaining or losing mass," Wahr said.
some scientists remain unconvinced. Oregon state climatologist George Taylor
noted that sea ice in some areas of Antarctica is expanding and part of the
region is getting colder, despite computer models that would predict otherwise.
Antarctic is really a puzzle," said Taylor, who writes for the Web site
TSCDaily, which is partly financed by fossil fuel companies that oppose curbs on
greenhouse gases linked to climate change. "A lot more research is needed
to understand the degree of climate and ice trends in and around the
the other end of the temperature spectrum, two South African researchers are
reporting today in Science that their computer models indicate that by 2100
climate change may rob the south and west of Africa and areas in the upper Nile
region of a significant portion of their current water supply. Warming may
reduce the rainfall needed to replenish up to 25 percent of Africa's surface
water, said Maarten de Wit and Jacek Stankiewicz at the University of Cape Town
in Rondebosch, South Africa.
is essential to human survival," they wrote, "and changes in its
supply can potentially have devastating implications, particularly in Africa,
where much of the population relies on local rivers for water."
Democrats, including Sen. John F. Kerry (Mass.) and Rep. Henry A. Waxman
(Calif.) said yesterday that the two new papers show that the United States must
act quickly to impose mandatory limits on carbon dioxide and other greenhouse
gases. The Bush administration opposes such curbs on the grounds that they could
hurt the country's economy and has instead invested money on new technology to
limit greenhouse emissions and further climate science research.
"Climate change is not just someone else's concern but a very real threat to the lives and livelihood of people across the globe," Kerry said."
Current warming makes it unlikely that the Arctic will return to its previous conditions. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA Arctic Report Card 2010 Update, USA)
In winter 2009-2010, Arctic warming brought severely cold winds and heavy snow to eastern North America and eastern Eurasia. (Dr. James Overland of the NOAA/Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, USA, 2010)
Overall warming has extended the annual melting period for Arctic sea ice to 20 days longer now than three decades ago, meaning more heat can be absorbed by the Arctic sea, and big impacts on marine ecosystems and North American climate. (NASA 2010)
Due to disappearing ice, polar explorers were able for the first time to journey around the North Pole in a small fiberglass sailing boat, a feat that would have been impossible even 10 years ago without an ice-breaker ship because the passages were sealed with ice. (Norwegian polar explorer Borge Ousland, voyage started in June 2010)
Effects on Arctic Polar Bears
photo © Daniel J. Cox/NaturalExposures.com
"The Arctic is experiencing the warmest air temperatures in four centuries. The Arctic has experienced warm periods before, but the present, rapid shrinking of sea ice is unprecedented. Scientists predict a mostly ice-free Arctic summer by 2040 if present trends continue. Most scientists now believe that the Arctic will continue to grow warmer as a result of human activity—namely, the introduction of increasing quantities of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.
In 2008, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the U.S. EPA, and the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment all reported sea ice loss in the Arctic equal to an area the size of Alaska, Texas, and the state of Washington combined.
Today's polar bears are facing rapid loss of the sea ice where they hunt, breed, and, in some cases, den. Changes in their distribution or numbers affect the entire arctic ecosystem.
Scientists believe that we still have time to save polar bears if we significantly reduce greenhouse emissions within the next few years. Yet it will take 30 to 40 years for changes reversing the warming trend to show...." (From Polar Bears International.)
"Climate change is expected to hit developing countries the hardest. Its effects—higher temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns, rising sea levels, and more frequent weather-related disasters—pose risks for agriculture, food, and water supplies. At stake are recent gains in the fight against poverty, hunger and disease, and the lives and livelihoods of billions of people in developing countries...." To read more: The World Bank.
Sources: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2009, United Nations World Meteorological Organization (WMO), United States Environmental Protection Agency, Ecology Communications Group, Inc. (ECG), NOAA, Washington Post (March 3, 2006), Polar Bears International, Wikipedia, New York Times, About.com, Benifits-of-recycling.com, Asia Pacific News / ABC Radio Australia,
Recycling of Paper:
If every American recycled 10% of their paper and newspapers each year in the United States, this would save 15 MILLION trees yearly.
World's Largest Dump:
Do you know where the world's largest dump is ?
The world's largest dump is located in the Pacific Ocean - the "Great Pacific Garbage Patch". The garbage area is twice the size of Texas, and stretches from the US West Coast to Japan. To read more, visit
To Read More - Links:
Posted and updated by James W. Claflin. BS Environmental Science / Resources Management, SUNY College of Forestry & Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY.
Page updated March 07, 2013
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text and illustrations on web site Ó
James W. Claflin . 03/07/2013
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